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### To Inquiry Lab: Questions on … “Field Propulsion”

I note excellent progress through the massive maze of miss-interpretations in Physics’ Standard Model of Reality have been advanced mathematically by the Haramein / Rauscher models. Simplifying through the use of geometry and frequency as common denominators, both the quantum and relativistic fields are beginning to merge, with more precise results.

Extracts on some of the more predominant issues addressed in the Haramein / Rauscher models are reprinted below for further reference and contrast to StarSteps views towards *field propulsion basics* and application.

While the Haramein / Rauscher models add clarification details of the vacuum, paving the path to unlimited energy access at any point, progress towards application of field propulsion has remained stagnant since the 1940s, in spite of the Dual Torus 4 Blackhole / Yin & Yang merger recognition.

As measurement has no meaning except and unless measurement is taken between two or more specified reference points, I again question the role the quantity C, (VC energy differential), plays between any two or more specified reference points. (QC is the zero point energy differential in the sine wave of the yin yang symbol – defined as the maximum differential which can exist between two reference points in the factor which we call matter, or also defined as the minimum differential which can exist between a reference point in matter, and one in energy. This is only true, however, when the reference point in matter is at the same energy level as the observer).

The interpretations of black holes, white holes, both macro and micro, singularity, and event horizons come to mind as possibilities existing between any two reference points, (taking scale variance into account across space time mass matter energy gravity factors) – similar to the Haramein / Rauscher derivation that protons orbiting the nucleus of an atom at the speed of light in a vacuum are essentially a black hole containing the mass of the entire universe inside every single atom, an approach much closer to reality.

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We need a closer and expanded examination at *substitutions* within space time mass matter energy gravity factors through scale invariance, with the proper application of moving electric charges.

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**StarSteps adds the application measurement vehicle**, the “Radius”, to the non-linearity of physical law and demonstrates precisely, the ‘relativity’ of total interdependence, interrelationships, between the natural laws – the changing of any one or more laws directly affects and causes changes to the others.

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And as **Haramein** **/ Rauscher **derived through separate calculations the equivalence of LIGHT (VC) to MASS, **StarSteps **shows Light (VC)’s equivalence to mass as ‘the kinetic energy equivalent of the mass energy of matter’, demonstrating precisely why Light (VC) also turns out to be the Radius of Curvature of All Natural Law . (see http://evolution-intelligentdesign-survival.blogspot.com/2010/01/its-musical-universe.html
*– Walter Russell’s “the speed of light is the limit at which motion can reproduce itself in curved wave fields before reaching zero where motion and curvature cease)*
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In the next post we will look at a simplified interpretation, **of atoms to galaxies** (4^{th} grade layman’s level), from which the most advanced studies of physics can be extrapolated and predicted, devoid of outlandish pseudo interpretations.

**Review to date:**

**Quantum Gravity and the Holographic Mass Nassim Haramein1* ABSTRACT ***Published 27 April 2013 http://resonance.is/explore/quantum-gravity-and-the-holographic-mass-trailer-and-press-release *We find an exact quantized expression of the Schwarzschild solution to Einstein’s field equations utilizing spherical Planck units in a generalized holographic approach. We consider vacuum fluctuations within volumes as well as on horizon surfaces, generating a discrete spacetime quantization and a novel quantized approach to gravitation. When applied at the quantum scale, utilizing the charge radius of the proton, we find values for the rest mass of the proton within 0.069×10−24 *gm *of the CODATA value and when the 2010 muonic proton charge radius measurement is utilized we find a deviation of 0.001×10−24 *gm *from the proton rest mass. We identify a fundamental mass ratio between the vacuum oscillations on the surface horizon and the oscillations within the volume of a proton and find a solution for the gravitational coupling constant to the strong interaction. We derive the energy, angular frequency, and period for such a system and determine its gravitational potential considering mass dilation. We find the force range to be closely correlated with the Yukawa potential typically utilized to illustrate the exponential drop-off of the confining force. Zero free parameters or hidden variables are utilized.

**A Scaling Law** http://hiup.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/AIP_CP_SProton_Haramein.pdf

http://hiup.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/scalinglaw_paper.pdf

**The Rotational Dynamics in Haramein-Rauscher Metrics and the Monopolic Current **http://www.tonyb.freeyellow.com/id124.html

COLLECTIVE COHERENT OSCILLATION PLASMA MODES IN SURROUNDING MEDIA OF BLACK HOLES AND VACUUM STRUCTURE – QUANTUM PROCESSES WITH CONSIDERATIONS OF SPACETIME TORQUE AND CORIOLIS FORCES N. Haramein¶ and E.A. Rauscher§ ¶The

Resonance Project Foundation, haramein@theresonanceproject.org§Tecnic Research Laboratory, 3500 S. Tomahawk Rd., Bldg. 188, Apache Junction, AZ 85219 USA

**Page —8 **Resonance effects can be created by magnetic fields which vary in magnitude due to the periodic nature of the field of the electron, which is possibly generated by the vacuum lattice structure [5,20]. The topology of the Fermi surface governs the behavior of the electron in a magnetic field. The existence of the Fermi surface occurs because of the high density of electrons so that the Pauli exclusion principle dominates, wherein the electrons form a highly degenerate system in a quantum system for high density plasmons. The electron states are filled up to a certain level which is the Fermi energy. The Fermi surface is the constant energy surface of the Fermi energy, mapped out in momentum space [20]. Periodic forms exist within the surface due to the periodic nature of the lattice**. ****Page – 16 ** Energy can be generated in the vacuum in a number of ways from external sources. This energy activates and excites the vacuum state so that the vacuum becomes observable through electron-positron pair production. The external energy, such as high magnetic field strengths and strong gravitational fields near superdense astrophysical bodies such as black holes or supernovae excite the plasma. It is through the energetic plasma states that the vacuum properties become apparent and observable. Under specific conditions with the correct available energy, coherent excitation modes appear and are like charged solitons in their properties. The precise form of the nonlinearities that give rise to the soliton structure can be formulated in terms of the complexification of the set of relevant equations such as

Maxwell’s equations [38] or the Schrödinger equation [39]. The imaginary terms in these equations can be utilized to describe soliton coherent states. In reference [39], the effects of the actual coherent states and its application to the vacuum can be made. Boyer details the field theoretic approach to describe vacuum processes [40]. Also the experimental test of the existence of zero-point fluctuations is detailed, such as the Lamb shift, Casimir effect, and possible effects on long-range electromagnetic fields [41,42]………….. **The role of vacuum energy processes –**Very energetic processes cohere the vacuum and create real physical effects. The question is if one can enhance this coherence and utilize it to optimize macroscopically observable “energy shifted” states. It is clear that the vacuum plays a role in physically realized states. The question then becomes, can we enhance the role of the vacuum to form interesting and utilizable processes in materials with coherent excitations that would be observed as apparent ambient superconducting states [21]. Let us briefly give another example of the role of the vacuum in physical theory, for example in chromoelectrodynamics theory, where we represent the properties of the vacuum as a form of soliton called an instanton which is a time-dependent entity rather than space-dependent like a soliton. We treat the relationship between quantum electrodynamics, QED and quantum chromodynamics in separate papers [4,43-45]. In the chromodynamics theory of elementary particle physics, the charged particles are quarks and their fractional charge is called the “color” quantum number. The field quanta by which the quarks interact are called gluons. Instantons arise out of the solutions that describe the forces in the chromodynamic field. They are properties of the vacuum. Since the vacuum is defined as “zero energy” they are essentially “pseudo-particles”. But instanons have a real physical effect; in their presence the gluons “feel” forces arising from the non-empty vacuum [4,44,45]. Solitons are coherent in space and instantons are coherent in time. In work in progress, we address the strong force and color force as consequences of a quantum gravity where a torque term and Coriolis effects are incorporated in the Hamiltonian of a nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

**Gravitational potential and mass dilation drop off: ***Physical Review & Research International, 3(4): 270-292, 2013 f*ig. 1. (a) The relativistic gravitational potential U **resulting from mass dilation near the horizon ***r ***. (b) The Yukawa potential **U **typically given as the short range energy potential of the strong force where **å **is the hard-core surface potential and ***k ***is the inverse screening length (inverse Debye length) **From Fig. 1(a) we find that the gravitational potential from the mass dilation of a proton due to the angular velocity of an accelerated frame generates an asymptotic curve with a force potential drop-off as a function of *r *characteristic of the short range force of nuclear confinement equivalent to the Yukawa potential in Fig. 1(b). Therefore, we have derived a relativistic source for the confining energy with a quantum gravitational potential equivalent to the unification energy of a Schwarzschild mass or the holographic gravitational mass of the proton *mh*′ , yielding a gravitational coupling with a Yukawa-like short range, and the appropriate interaction time of the strong force *tp *, resulting in an analytical solution to confinement. These results are derived from first principles and classical considerations alone, with zero free parameters or hidden variables,

and extend our generalized holographic solution to generate a complete picture of confinement whether at the quantum scale or the cosmological scale of black holes. …………..We have generalized the holographic principle to considerations of

spherical tiling of Planck vacuum fluctuations within volumes as well as on horizon surfaces. From these discrete spacetime quantization relationships we extract the Schwarzschild solution to Einstein’s field equations, generating a novel quantized approach to gravitation……………….As a result, we predict a precise proton charge radius utilizing our holographic method which falls within the reported experimental uncertainty for the muonic measurement of the proton charge radius. More precise experiments in the future may confirm our predicted theoretical proton charge radius. We determine a fundamental constant ö defined by the mass ratio of vacuum oscillations on the surface horizon to the ones within the volume of the proton. As a result, clear relationships emerge between the Planck mass, the rest mass of the proton, and the Schwarzschild mass of the proton or what we term the holographic gravitational mass.

*Physical Review & Research International, 3(4): 270-292, 2013 *In 1916, Karl Schwarzschild published an exact solution to Einstein’s field equations for the gravitational field outside a spherically symmetric body [1,2]. The Schwarzschild solution determined a critical radius, *rs *for any given mass where the escape velocity equals *c *, the speed of light. The region where *r *= *rs *is typically denoted as the horizon or event horizon and is given by the well known definition 2*Gm r*= (1) where *G *is the gravitational constant, and *m *is the mass. John Archibald Wheeler in 1967 described this region of space as a “*black hole*” during a talk at the NASA Goddard Institute of Space Studies. In 1957 Wheeler had already, as an implication of general

relativity, theorized the presence of tunnels in spacetime or “*wormholes*” and in 1955, as a consequence of quantum mechanics, the concept of “*spacetime foam*” or “*quantum foam*” as a qualitative description of subatomic spacetime turbulence [3]. The theory predicts that the very fabric of spacetime is a seething foam of wormholes and tiny virtual black holes at the Planck scale as well as being the source of virtual particle production. In Wheeler’s own words: *“The vision of quantum gravity is a vision of turbulence – turbulent space, turbulent time, turbulent spacetime… spacetime in small enough regions should not be merely “bumpy,” not merely erratic in its curvature; it should fractionate into ever-changing, multiply- connected geometries. For the very small and the very quick, wormholes should be as much a part of the landscape as those dancing virtual particles that give to the electron its slightly altered energy and magnetism *[Observed as the Lamb shift]*.” *[4] On the cosmological scale, black hole singularities were initially thought to have no physical meaning and probably did not occur in nature. As general relativity developed in the late 20 century it was found that such singularities were a generic feature of the theory and evidence for astrophysical black holes grew such that they are now accepted as having physical existence and are an intrinsic component of modern cosmology. While the Schwarzschild solution to Einstein’s field equations results in extreme curvature at the origin and the horizon of a black hole, it is widely utilized to give appropriate results for many typical applications from cosmology to planetary physics. As a result, clear relationships emerge between the Planck mass, the rest mass of the proton, and the Schwarzschild mass of the proton or what we term the holographic gravitational mass. Further, we find that our derived fundamental constant 4ö2 generates the gravitational coupling constant to the strong interaction, thus defining the unification energy for confinement. We also derive the energy, angular frequency, and period for such a system utilizing our generalized holographic approach. We find that the period is on the order of the interaction time of particle decay via the strong force which is congruent with our derivation of the gravitational coupling constant. Moreover, the frequency of the system correlates well with the characteristic gamma frequency of the nucleon decay rate. Finally, we compute the gravitational potential resulting from the mass dilation of the system due to angular velocities as a function of radius and find that the gravitational force of such a system produces a force range drop-off closely correlated with the Yukawa potential typically utilized to define the short range of the strong interaction. We demonstrate that a quantum gravitational framework of a discrete spacetime defined by spherical Planck vacuum oscillators can be constructed which applies to both cosmological and quantum scales. Our generalized holographic method utilizes zero free parameters and is generated from simple geometric relationships and algebra, yielding precise results for significant physical properties such as the mass of black holes, the rest mass of the proton, and the confining nuclear force.

*Physical Review & Research International, 3(4): 270-292, 2013 ** *The current QCD approach accounts for the remaining mass of the proton by the kinetic back reaction of massless gluons interacting with the confining color field utilizing special relativity to determine masses. Yet it is critical to note that after almost a century of computation, there is still no analytical solution to the Lattice QCD model for confinement. This problem is thought to be one of the most obscure processes in particle physics and a Millennium Prize Problem from the Clay Mathematics Institute has been issued to find a resolution [23,24]. Since there is no analytical solution to LQCD and no framework for the energy source necessary for confinement, associating the remaining mass of the proton to the kinetic energy of massless gluons is based on tenuous tenets. Our results demonstrate that the holographic gravitational mass-energy of the proton *mh*′ is the unification energy scale for hadronic confinement and that the mass of nucleons is a direct consequence of vacuum fluctuations. Keeping in mind that a neutron quickly decays into a proton when free of the nucleus, we have therefore addressed the fundamental nature of the nucleon by deriving the proton rest mass and the confining force from holographic considerations. In future publications we will address the confinement string-like gluon jet flux tube structures of the QCD vacuum model as potentially arising from high curvature within the spacetime Planck vacuum collective behavior background, acting as vortices near the holographic screen topological horizon. This will be addressed utilizing an extended center vortex picture which has been significantly developed by ‘t Hooft [25] and in which the surface area of a Wilson loop is related to a confining force. In the next section, we explore the energy and angular frequency associated with our model and we compute the gravitational potential range of our confining force utilizing special relativity.

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