Crystal structure of alpha-MnO2, which was used for water splitting. Alpha-MnO2 is the main component of the MnO2 mineral (hollandite). Pyridine was added to optimize the timing of the electron/proton transfer timing.
Zero-point energy, also called quantum vacuum zero-point energy, is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical physical system may have; it is the energy of its ground state. All quantum mechanical systems undergo fluctuations even in their ground state and have an associated zero-point energy, a consequence of their wave-like nature. The uncertainty principle requires every physical system to have a zero-point energy greater than the minimum of its classical potential well. This results in motion even at absolute zero. For example, liquid helium does not freeze under atmospheric pressure at any temperature because of its zero-point energy. The concept of zero-point energy was developed in Germany by Albert Einstein and Otto Stern in 1913, as a corrective term added to a zero-grounded formula developed by Max Planck in 1900. The term zero-point energy originates from the German Nullpunktsenergie. An alternative form of the German term is Nullpunktenergie (without the “s”). Vacuum energy is the zero-point energy of all the fields in space, which in the Standard Model includes the electromagnetic field, other gauge fields, fermionic fields, and the Higgs field. It is the energy of the vacuum, which in quantum field theory is defined not as empty space but as the ground state of the fields. In cosmology, the vacuum energy is one possible explanation for the cosmological constant. A related term is zero-point field, which is the lowest energy state of a particular field. Ultracold experiments heat up quantum research – quantum criticality
“dark energy” refers to the fact that some kind of “stuff” must fill the vast reaches of mostly empty space
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dark_energy In physical cosmology and astronomy, dark energy is a hypothetical form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to accelerate the expansion of the universe. Dark energy is the most accepted hypothesis to explain observations since the 1990s that indicate that the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. According to the Planck mission team, and based on the standard model of cosmology, the total mass–energy of the universe contains 4.9% ordinary matter, 26.8%dark matter and 68.3% dark energy. Two proposed forms for dark energy are the cosmological constant, a constant energy density filling space homogeneously, and scalar fields such as quintessence or moduli, dynamic quantities whose energy density can vary in time and space. Dark Energy: The Biggest Mystery in the Universe Read more: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/Dark-Energy-The-Biggest-Mystery-in-the-Universe.html#ixzz2mG9S1pUc
We have seen that the factor known as the quantity C has a greater significance than is usually credited to it. It is not merely the velocity with which light and other forms of energy are propagated in a vacuum. The quantity C is a degree of energy differential.
We can define it as the maximum differential which can exist between two reference points in the factor which we call matter. We can also define it as the minimum differential which can exist between a reference point in matter, and one in energy. This is only true, however, when the reference point in matter is at the same energy level as the observer.
One of the postulates of the theory of relativity is that as a body of matter accelerates and approaches the velocity of light, or a kinetic energy differential equal to the quantity C with respect to a given observer, the body loses dimension in the direction of motion. If the velocity reaches the velocity of light it will appear to have lost all of its dimension in this direction. To this observer it would no longer be matter, since matter, by definition, requires three dimensions. The matter would have become energy insofar as the original observer was concerned since it would now exhibit a kinetic energy differential equal to the total energy inherent in the original matter.
This statement, however, seems to produce a misconception in the minds of many students of physics. We will attempt to clarify the concept by the use of a simple analogy. We will assume that we have three space ships assembled at a given point upon the surface of the earth, (or at a given point in space). For the purpose of this analogy we will assume that the ships are capable of any desired degree of acceleration. We will dispatch two of these ships into space, flying side by side in a given direction. We will launch the remaining craft in the opposite direction in space. We have an observer upon each of the three craft and a fourth observer who remains at the point from which they departed. We will designate the ships which departed together as A and B, the ship which is moving in the opposite direction as C, and the observer at the starting point as D. When we have accelerated all three of the ships to a velocity equal to one half of light, (with respect to the starting point) we pause to determine what changes, if any, have taken place. To the observer at the starting point D, the three ships have become slightly shorter in the direction of their motion, and have gained a small amount of “mass” but are otherwise unchanged. The observer upon the ship C, however, discovers that while he and his own ship appear to be unchanged, the ships A and B have lost all dimension in the line of motion, because they have reached the velocity C with respect to his reference point. They have ceased to exist as matter and have entered the plane of energy. The two observers upon the ships A and B also note that C has ceased to exist as a material object, but when they examine themselves and each other, they find that no change whatever has occurred to them or to their ships since they are all upon exactly the same energy level and no differential exists between them.
We will now accelerate all three ships to the velocity C with respect to their starting point D. At this velocity the three ships cease to exist materially insofar as the observer at D is concerned, since they have entered the plane of energy, and are also at the zero point of the curve of time with respect to him. The observer upon the ship C would note that the ships A and B were again in existence but that they were now in the negative portion of the curve. Since this concept may prove somewhat difficult to grasp at the first attempt, it will be explained further and a simple analogy given in the chapter on Time.
The foregoing analogy also demonstrates that the term velocity has no meaning or significance except as an observed kinetic energy differential between two specified points of reference.
It is the factor which will eventually tell us how to place our spacecraft in either the positive or negative portion of the gravitational curve with respect to the earth or any other planet which we may choose to visit.
When we state that the quantity C is the radius of the curvature of natural law, we mean simply that if a differential of energy equal to this quantity exists between the observer and the point which he is observing, the natural laws will be suspended. If the energy differential is in excess of the quantity C, the laws will appear to operate in reverse at that point.
While we have repeatedly referred to the quantity C as an energy differential, we have heretofore considered it only in terms of kinetic energy. Some may believe that it can be reached only when there is a rate of increase or decrease in the degree of spatial separation between the reference points, equal to 3×10(10) centimeters per second, or in simpler terms, a velocity equal to that of light. It is necessary therefore to point out the fact that an energy differential does not necessarily manifest itself as a velocity. It can also exist as a frequency. Our present laws of physics state that the energy level upon which an electron, a photon, or other particle exists is proportionate to its frequency. The mathematical rule is E equals Fh, where E is the energy, F is the frequency and h is a factor called Planck’s constant.
We can now see that a frequency differential which by the above formula is equal to 9×10(20) ergs per gram also represents the quantity C. When such a frequency differential exists between the observer and the point which he is observing, we again find that the natural laws at the observed point reach zero value with respect to the observer. If the frequency differential exceeds this value, the action of the laws will become negative. A material object such as a spacecraft upon or near the surface of the earth would cease to exist as matter and would enter the plane of energy insofar as the observer on earth was concerned, but as we have previously pointed out, an observer upon or within the object, whose frequency or energy level had been raised to the same degree as that of the craft, would be unable to detect any change.
We must clear our minds of the thought block produced by the assumption that the quantity C is a factor of absolute limit. We must realize that it is a limiting factor only with respect to two given reference points, and that it is perfectly possible to conceive of a series of consecutive reference points between each two of which a differential equal to the quantity C may exist.