Sound Off: World Views and The Empowerment Factor

Co-Creating our Future


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Developing New Story of No Limits

Energy and Human Evolution

Looking beyond the previous post on ‘Counterclockwise – Growing Younger’, what other exciting doors are beginning to open in our developing New Story of no limits, now fully stretching both science and awareness beyond their previous confines at an ever accelerating pace .

With our Physical Body no more than a year old – A good question to ask is where ARE we heading? A larger integrated Map becomes helpful in future designs, more closely matching evolutionary criteria, especially one that describes the fundamental equation, E=mc2, not as a theory of limits but as a theory of infinite possibilities,  Disasters, treacherous roads, stuck in endless mazes can therefore be minimized.

The Science of the Mind-Body Connection     Regeneration     Holistic Healing 

Every year 98% of the atoms in your body are exchanged for ‘new’ atoms

holographic consciousness

We can then certainly make course corrections and avoid the unnatural, short-sighted path contrary to our own Nature.

 Is Nature About to Abandon Us?

In Summary, wisdom determines the USES to which our creations shall be put, then follows understanding. As  civilization has been said to rest upon a tripod, representing the physical sciences, the mental sciences, and the spiritual sciences, all three which follow the same exact scientific principles, we note there is a complete vacuum, a non-existent scientific leg, of the spiritual sciences, from which wisdom and understanding can surface.

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Nuclear Alternatives to More and Safer POWER – Are Doors Opening to E=MC2 ?

Are the doors opening to the far greater potential of E=MC2 after 100 years of stalemate?Will we continue to wait, or open the book on E=MC2? Perusing just the book cover  (of E=MC2) has been insufficient. A retake into Thorium, with sufficient questions asked, may open up other doors, avenues, as in frequency/field territories (summation at end).

 
Car Runs For 100 Years Without Refueling – Thorium …. OR ADVANCE TO FIELD APPLICATION & PROPULSION with far more potential.

A car powered by thorium, you would  never need  to refuel it. The vehicle would burn out long before the chemical did. The thorium would last so long…..” cont   (a google search will reveal deliberate, directed, misinformation, but the links below are all diverse University/Science connected)  

 
 
 
 
 
 
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If nuclear power is to finally overcome public opposition and the post-Fukushima backlash, government and industry must walk away from traditional reactor technology and shift to superior designs that rely on thorium rather than uranium. So said Nobel Prize winning physicist Carlo Rubbia, addressing the Thorium Energy Conference 2013, held here at the renowned international physics lab CERN. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Using the coined ‘popup neck’ procedure (seeing above the crowd of old belief), what do fields have to do with the protons & neutrons and associated space time mass matter energy peripherals within the nuclear realm?
 
Ever greater exploding Beauty quarks, and more and more elegant, complex, off tangent math, has ceased to expand our window to reality. A more expansive, yet simplified comprehension to E=MC2 automatically directs one’s approach toward greater wisdom and understanding. For guideposts, the collective contemporary level of Wisdom/Understanding is confirmed by the state of the world Energy Evolution after the Pyramids – Cause & Effect
 
 
Field Propulsion NOT  Beauty Quarks or thermometric nuclear weapons/thermobaric weapons
University scientists unraveling nature of Higgs boson   The idle energy science foundation necessitates an ‘understanding’ upgrade, not more trivia/pretty math beauty quarks and their distant, infinite, future, smaller and smaller, non-comprehendable exploding cousins.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hydrogen – on demand – from water
 
ENERGY TECH  Insghts from nature for more efficient water splitting

Crystal structure of alpha-MnO2, which was used for water splitting. Alpha-MnO2 is the main component of the MnO2 mineral (hollandite). Pyridine was added to optimize the timing of the electron/proton transfer timing.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
SUGGESTED: Redirect Profit Motive Toward Pro-Life
 
Summation of Fundamental Principle VC – velocity of light energy differential:
·        The simple unity of matter and energy: Consider a geometric plane surface having two dimensions. If this plane is perpendicular to your line of sight you perceive it as a plane surface, the matter aspect. If now you rotate the plane through an angle of ninety degrees, the surface will disappear from your sight, leaving only one dimension, the energy aspect. You have not changed the plane in any way. You have merely changed your point of view, or technically, you have changed your point of reference. The amount of energy which is apparently contained by a given body of matter depends entirely upon how far it has rotated upon the mass energy axis (defined by the quantity C, the radius of curvature of all natural law) with respect to the given observer. Another observer, observing the same body from a different reference point, would find an entirely different amount of energy. 
·        ENERGY: We will define energy as the ability to create changes in the position or condition of objects or points of reference. However, energy can create change, only when there exists a differential in the two points between which the change becomes manifest, or when the unit of energy has become divided into its two component parts called poles, or charges. One positive and one negative pole or charge, when united, constitute one photon or quantum of energy. (definitions  of the natural laws: space time mass matter energy gravity)
·        The Quantity C, the speed of light energy differential, is the pivotal point upon which the natural laws become manifest
·        The Quantity C is the kinetic energy equivalent of the mass energy of matter.
·        The Quantity C manifests as electromagnetic radiation covering a tremendous range of frequencies (also, each different type of atom has its own characteristic set of frequencieshttp://exploringenergyevolution.blogspot.com/2013/12/atoms-to-galaxies.html)
·        The Quantity C is the radius of the curvature of natural law, meaning if a differential of energy equal to this quantity exists between the observer and the point which he is observing, the natural laws will be suspended. If the energy differential is in excess of the quantity C, the laws will appear to operate in reverse at that point.  
·        The Quantity C is also the velocity at which the universe folds and unfolds, from the STILL POINT – between the infinitely large and infinitely small  –  between Barbara Dewey’s “Big Blink” of the constant moving instant ‘Now’, ‘Now’ – or Walter Russell’s “point of rest” between the stages of unfoldment and refoldment, the cycles of ‘genero-activity’ contraction of gravity, at the inner explosive speed of light –  and radioactive expansion of vacuity, at the outer explosive speed of light.
Advanced, evolving concepts of ‘black holes’, zero point, dark energy/matter: Unified Physics – Articles, Reviews  http://resonance.is/unified-physics/articles-reviews
The Resonance Project‘s William Brown has written a response to the recent Hawking paper that clarifies what Hawking actually did say and how these new observations are moving the standard model of black holes closer and closer toward the model and predictions that Nassim Haramein has been making about black holes for many years.http://resonance.is/stephen-hawking-goes-grey-2/   Some exciting new developments are occurring right now in the highest levels of physics that are converging directly with Haramein’s work on quantum black holes. Inevitably, the study of the physical Universe will lead to the correct answers, no matter how strange it may appear…
 


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Teleportation: Paving the Way

repost courtesy of Exploring Energy Evolution

Scientists Report Teleportation From One Location to Another

The concept of teleportation mainly stems from science fiction novels and movies, but what was once considered fantasy has been validated as reality in 2014. For some time, developments in quantum theory and general relativity physics have been made, leading up to recent breakthroughs which have opened up a wide arena of study in the future.   Read more http://www.trueactivist.com/scientists-report-teleportation-from-one-location-to-another/   Filed under:   Posted by: 

 

Late Edition Add on

Physicists say energy can be teleported 'without a limit of distance'

A team of physicists has proposed a way of teleporting energy over long distances. The technique, which is purely theoretical at this point, takes advantage of the strange quantum phenomenon of entanglement where two particles share the same existence.

Keep in mind the far more comprehensive definitions, qualities and properties of Light, the quantity C, 186,000 mi/per sec energy differential, when pondering the nature of teleportation, entanglement, quantum jumping, wave/particle duality, simultaneity, and reference frames with their applicable properties to field propulsion:
 

Radius of Curvature of all Natural Law:

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Light: 186,000 miles per second (energydifferential)
·       Light2: The Radius of Curvature of all Natural Law – a sine wave, positive/negative, characterizing the  nature of every natural law
·       Light3: The kinetic energy equivalent of the mass energy of matter
·       Light4: The Big Blink Inward – Gravitational, 186,000 per sec; Outward – Radiation, 186,000 per second
·       Light5:   Haramein / Rauscher’s (reference below) derivation that protons orbiting the nucleus of an atom at the speed of light in a vacuum are essentially a black hole

Quantum Entanglement, Quantum Jumping, Quantum Teleportation:

 
Nature: Deterministic quantum teleportation with atoms   http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v429/n6993/abs/nature02570.html

Air Force Materiel Command  –  Edwards Air Force Base ca 93524-7048  http://www.fas.org/sgp/eprint/teleport.pdf



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Fixing the Broken Compass: Finding Our Way to Natural Capitalism

  

RMI  Rocky Mountain Institute

Fixing the Broken Compass: Finding Our Way to Natural Capitalism

“Could it be that a new energy economy, founded on a far more thoughtful and far-sighted approach to managing our planet’s resources, is already emerging?” (more) 

As I commented on Earth Justice, “inadequate information, at best, provides inadequate results – not justice.”

“State of the Climate” is Obama’s Challenge

 

CAN ANYONE SEE A WAY OUT OF “ANYTHING”, IF YOUR INFORMATION IS INADEQUATE, OR YOU ARE MISINFORMED?

FIXING THE BROKEN COMPASS WILL ONLY BE DONE BY AN UPGRADED SCIENCE OF REALITY, SPECIFICALLY ENERGY, AN UPGRADE WHICH HAS BEEN AVAILABLE SINCE THE 1940s.

 

Innovation and Big ideas continue to be decapitated by an imposed idolatry of the defective standard model of physics.

 

The QC Mystery Continues: Stephen Hawking’s New Black Hole Escape Theory

The controversy in Physic’s Standard Model continues.
Note the “:mystery” object happens to be the grossly and inadequately defined  “speed of light”, the quantity C.  (more)


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To Inquiry Lab: Questions on … “Field Propulsion”


   Peter Jocis   Peter Jocis  Facebook Forward
 
 

To Inquiry Lab: Questions on … “Field Propulsion”

I note excellent progress through the massive maze of miss-interpretations in Physics’ Standard Model of Reality have been advanced mathematically by the Haramein / Rauscher models. Simplifying through the use of geometry and frequency as common denominators, both the quantum and relativistic fields are beginning to merge, with more precise results. 

Extracts on some of the more predominant issues addressed in the Haramein / Rauscher models are reprinted below for further reference and contrast to StarSteps views towards field propulsion basics and application.

While the Haramein / Rauscher models add clarification details of the vacuum, paving the path to unlimited energy access at any point, progress towards application of field propulsion has remained stagnant since the 1940s, in spite of the Dual Torus 4 Blackhole / Yin & Yang merger recognition.

As measurement has no meaning except and unless measurement is taken between two or more specified reference points, I again question the role the quantity C, (VC energy differential), plays between any two or more specified reference points. (QC is the zero point energy differential in the sine wave of the yin yang symbol – defined as the maximum differential which can exist between two reference points in the factor which we call matter, or also defined as the minimum differential which can exist between a reference point in matter, and one in energy. This is only true, however, when the reference point in matter is at the same energy level as the observer).

The interpretations of black holes, white holes, both macro and micro, singularity, and event horizons come to mind as possibilities  existing between any two reference points, (taking scale variance into account across space time mass matter energy gravity factors) – similar to the Haramein / Rauscher derivation that protons orbiting the nucleus of an atom at the speed of light in a vacuum are essentially a black hole containing the mass of the entire universe inside every single atom, an approach much closer to reality.
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We need a closer and expanded examination at substitutions within space time mass matter energy gravity factors through scale invariance, with the proper application of moving electric charges.
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StarSteps adds the application measurement vehicle, the “Radius”, to the non-linearity of physical law and demonstrates precisely, the ‘relativity’ of total interdependence, interrelationships, between the natural laws – the changing of any one or more laws directly affects and causes changes to the others.
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And as Haramein / Rauscher derived through separate calculations the equivalence of LIGHT (VC) to MASS, StarSteps shows Light (VC)’s equivalence to mass as ‘the kinetic energy equivalent of the mass energy of matter’, demonstrating precisely why Light (VC) also turns out to be the Radius of Curvature of All Natural Law .  (see http://evolution-intelligentdesign-survival.blogspot.com/2010/01/its-musical-universe.html
– Walter Russell’s “the speed of light is the limit at which motion can reproduce itself in curved wave fields before reaching zero where motion and curvature cease)
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In the next post we will look at a simplified interpretation, of atoms to galaxies (4th grade layman’s level), from which the most advanced studies of physics can be extrapolated and predicted, devoid of outlandish pseudo interpretations. 

Review to date:






















 Quantum Gravity and the Holographic Mass Nassim Haramein1*  ABSTRACT  Published 27 April 2013 http://resonance.is/explore/quantum-gravity-and-the-holographic-mass-trailer-and-press-release   We find an exact quantized expression of the Schwarzschild solution to Einstein’s field equations utilizing spherical Planck units in a generalized holographic approach. We consider vacuum fluctuations within volumes as well as on horizon surfaces, generating a discrete spacetime quantization and a novel quantized approach to gravitation. When applied at the quantum scale, utilizing the charge radius of the proton, we find values for the rest mass of the proton within 0.069×10−24 gm of the CODATA value and when the 2010 muonic proton charge radius measurement is utilized we find a deviation of 0.001×10−24 gm from the proton rest mass. We identify a fundamental mass ratio between the vacuum oscillations on the surface horizon and the oscillations within the volume of a proton and find a solution for the gravitational coupling constant to the strong interaction. We derive the energy, angular frequency, and period for such a system and determine its gravitational potential considering mass dilation. We find the force range to be closely correlated with the Yukawa potential typically utilized to illustrate the exponential drop-off of the confining force. Zero free parameters or hidden variables are utilized. 


A Scaling Law http://hiup.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/AIP_CP_SProton_Haramein.pdf
http://hiup.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/scalinglaw_paper.pdf



The Rotational Dynamics in Haramein-Rauscher Metrics and the Monopolic Current  http://www.tonyb.freeyellow.com/id124.html



COLLECTIVE COHERENT OSCILLATION PLASMA MODES IN SURROUNDING MEDIA OF BLACK HOLES AND VACUUM STRUCTURE – QUANTUM PROCESSES WITH CONSIDERATIONS OF SPACETIME TORQUE AND CORIOLIS FORCES  N. Harameinand E.A. Rauscher§ ¶The
Resonance Project Foundation,
haramein@theresonanceproject.org§Tecnic Research Laboratory, 3500 S. Tomahawk Rd., Bldg. 188, Apache Junction, AZ 85219 USA 

Page —8  Resonance effects can be created by magnetic fields which vary in magnitude due to the periodic nature of the field of the electron, which is possibly generated by the vacuum lattice structure [5,20]. The topology of the Fermi surface governs the behavior of the electron in a magnetic field. The existence of the Fermi surface occurs because of the high density of electrons so that the Pauli exclusion principle dominates, wherein the electrons form a highly degenerate system in a quantum system for high density plasmons. The electron states are filled up to a certain level which is the Fermi energy. The Fermi surface is the constant energy surface of the Fermi energy, mapped out in momentum space [20]. Periodic forms exist within the surface due to the periodic nature of the lattice.   Page – 16   Energy can be generated in the vacuum in a number of ways from external sources. This energy activates and excites the vacuum state so that the vacuum becomes observable through electron-positron pair production. The external energy, such as high magnetic field strengths and strong gravitational fields near superdense astrophysical bodies such as black holes or supernovae excite the plasma. It is through the energetic plasma states that the vacuum properties become apparent and observable. Under specific conditions with the correct available energy, coherent excitation modes appear and are like charged solitons in their properties. The precise form of the nonlinearities that give rise to the soliton structure can be formulated in terms of the complexification of the set of relevant equations such as
Maxwell’s equations [38] or the Schrödinger equation [39]. The imaginary terms in these equations can be utilized to describe soliton coherent states. In reference [39], the effects of the actual coherent states and its application to the vacuum can be made. Boyer details the field theoretic approach to describe vacuum processes [40]. Also the experimental test of the existence of zero-point fluctuations is detailed, such as the Lamb shift, Casimir effect, and possible effects on long-range electromagnetic fields [41,42]………….. The role of vacuum energy processes –Very energetic processes cohere the vacuum and create real physical effects. The question is if one can enhance this coherence and utilize it to optimize macroscopically observable “energy shifted” states. It is clear that the vacuum plays a role in physically realized states. The question then becomes, can we enhance the role of the vacuum to form interesting and utilizable processes in materials with coherent excitations that would be observed as apparent ambient superconducting states [21]. Let us briefly give another example of the role of the vacuum in physical theory, for example in chromoelectrodynamics theory, where we represent the properties of the vacuum as a form of soliton called an instanton which is a time-dependent entity rather than space-dependent like a soliton. We treat the relationship between quantum electrodynamics, QED and quantum chromodynamics in separate papers [4,43-45]. In the chromodynamics theory of elementary particle physics, the charged particles are quarks and their fractional charge is called the “color” quantum number. The field quanta by which the quarks interact are called gluons. Instantons arise out of the solutions that describe the forces in the chromodynamic field. They are properties of the vacuum. Since the vacuum is defined as “zero energy” they are essentially “pseudo-particles”. But instanons have a real physical effect; in their presence the gluons “feel” forces arising from the non-empty vacuum [4,44,45]. Solitons are coherent in space and instantons are coherent in time. In work in progress, we address the strong force and color force as consequences of a quantum gravity where a torque term and Coriolis effects are incorporated in the Hamiltonian of a nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

 Gravitational potential and mass dilation drop off:  Physical Review & Research International, 3(4): 270-292, 2013 fig. 1. (a) The relativistic gravitational potential U resulting from mass dilation near the horizon r . (b) The Yukawa potential U typically given as the short range energy potential of the strong force where å is the hard-core surface potential and k is the inverse screening length (inverse Debye length)  From Fig. 1(a) we find that the gravitational potential from the mass dilation of a proton due to the angular velocity of an accelerated frame generates an asymptotic curve with a force potential drop-off as a function of r characteristic of the short range force of nuclear confinement equivalent to the Yukawa potential in Fig. 1(b). Therefore, we have derived a relativistic source for the confining energy with a quantum gravitational potential equivalent to the unification energy of a Schwarzschild mass or the holographic gravitational mass of the proton mh, yielding a gravitational coupling with a Yukawa-like short range, and the appropriate interaction time of the strong force tp , resulting in an analytical solution to confinement. These results are derived from first principles and classical considerations alone, with zero free parameters or hidden variables,
and extend our generalized holographic solution to generate a complete picture of confinement whether at the quantum scale or the cosmological scale of black holes. …………..We have generalized the holographic principle to considerations of
spherical tiling of Planck vacuum fluctuations within volumes as well as on horizon surfaces. From these discrete spacetime quantization relationships we extract the Schwarzschild solution to Einstein’s field equations, generating a novel quantized approach to gravitation……………….As a result, we predict a precise proton charge radius utilizing our holographic method which falls within the reported experimental uncertainty for the muonic measurement of the proton charge radius. More precise experiments in the future may confirm our predicted theoretical proton charge radius. We determine a fundamental constant ö defined by the mass ratio of vacuum oscillations on the surface horizon to the ones within the volume of the proton. As a result, clear relationships emerge between the Planck mass, the rest mass of the proton, and the Schwarzschild mass of the proton or what we term the holographic gravitational mass.



Physical Review & Research International, 3(4): 270-292, 2013 In 1916, Karl Schwarzschild published an exact solution to Einstein’s field equations for the gravitational field outside a spherically symmetric body [1,2]. The Schwarzschild solution  determined a critical radius, rs for any given mass where the escape velocity equals c , the speed of light. The region where r = rs is typically denoted as the horizon or event horizon and is given by the well known definition  2Gm r= (1)  where G is the gravitational constant, and m is the mass. John Archibald Wheeler in 1967 described this region of space as a “black hole” during a talk at the NASA Goddard Institute of Space Studies. In 1957 Wheeler had already, as an implication of general
relativity, theorized the presence of tunnels in spacetime or “wormholes” and in 1955, as a consequence of quantum mechanics, the concept of “spacetime foam” or “quantum foam” as a qualitative description of subatomic spacetime turbulence [3]. The theory predicts that the very fabric of spacetime is a seething foam of wormholes and tiny virtual black holes at the Planck scale as well as being the source of virtual particle production. In Wheeler’s own words: “The vision of quantum gravity is a vision of turbulence – turbulent space, turbulent time, turbulent spacetime… spacetime in small enough regions should not be merely “bumpy,” not merely erratic in its curvature; it should fractionate into ever-changing, multiply- connected geometries. For the very small and the very quick, wormholes should be as much a part of the landscape as those dancing virtual particles that give to the electron its slightly altered energy and magnetism [Observed as the Lamb shift].” [4]  On the cosmological scale, black hole singularities were initially thought to have no physical meaning and probably did not occur in nature. As general relativity developed in the late 20 century it was found that such singularities were a generic feature of the theory and evidence for astrophysical black holes grew such that they are now accepted as having physical existence and are an intrinsic component of modern cosmology. While the Schwarzschild solution to Einstein’s field equations results in extreme curvature at the origin and the horizon of a black hole, it is widely utilized to give appropriate results for many typical applications from cosmology to planetary physics. As a result, clear relationships emerge between the Planck mass, the rest mass of the proton, and the Schwarzschild mass of the proton or what we term the holographic gravitational mass. Further, we find that our derived fundamental constant 4ö2 generates the gravitational coupling constant to the strong interaction, thus defining the 
unification energy for confinement. We also derive the energy, angular frequency, and period for such a system utilizing our generalized holographic approach. We find that the period is on the order of the interaction time of particle decay via the strong force which is congruent with our derivation of the gravitational coupling constant. Moreover, the frequency of the system correlates well with the characteristic gamma frequency of the nucleon decay rate. Finally, we compute the gravitational potential resulting from the mass dilation of the system due to angular velocities as a function of radius and find that the gravitational force of such a system produces a force range drop-off closely correlated with the Yukawa potential typically utilized to define the short range of the strong interaction.  We demonstrate that a quantum gravitational framework of a discrete spacetime defined by spherical Planck vacuum oscillators can be constructed which applies to both cosmological and quantum scales. Our generalized holographic method utilizes zero free parameters and is generated from simple geometric relationships and algebra, yielding precise results for significant physical properties such as the mass of black holes, the rest mass of the proton, and the confining nuclear force.

Physical Review & Research International, 3(4): 270-292, 2013   The current QCD approach accounts for the remaining mass of the proton by the kinetic back reaction of massless gluons interacting with the confining color field  utilizing special relativity to determine masses. Yet it is critical to note that after almost a century of computation, there is still no analytical solution to the Lattice QCD model for confinement. This problem is thought to be one of the most obscure processes in particle physics and a Millennium Prize Problem from the Clay Mathematics Institute has been issued to find a resolution [23,24]. Since there is no analytical solution to LQCD and no framework for the energy source necessary for confinement, associating the remaining mass of the proton to the kinetic energy of massless gluons is based on tenuous tenets. Our results demonstrate that the holographic gravitational mass-energy of the proton mhis the unification energy scale for hadronic confinement and that the mass of nucleons is a direct consequence of vacuum fluctuations. Keeping in mind that a neutron quickly decays into a proton when free of the nucleus, we have therefore addressed the fundamental nature of the nucleon by deriving the proton rest mass and the confining force from holographic considerations. In future publications we will address the confinement string-like gluon jet flux tube structures of the QCD vacuum model as potentially arising from high curvature within the spacetime Planck vacuum collective behavior background, acting as vortices near the holographic screen topological horizon. This will be addressed utilizing an extended center vortex picture which has been significantly developed by ‘t Hooft [25] and in which the surface area of a Wilson loop is related to a confining force. In the next section, we explore the energy and angular frequency associated with our model  and we compute the gravitational potential range of our confining force utilizing special relativity. 


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Beyond A Uni-dimensional Perception of TIME

time3d

Accessing Fusion Power through the fusing of nuclei under extreme pressure and temperature is outdated.

  All previously failed attempts to Fusion Power have in common the characteristic issues Leo Smolin describes in  “the time problem” – albeit these ‘relative, universal, absolute, preferred concepts”, including the notions of duality, shape dynamics and relativity, with their variances (very large, macro) to quantum (very small, micro) cross over to the other factors of nature (space, time, mass, matter, energy, gravity)……………… The scale invariance and dualities are resolved through the Radius of Curvature of all Natural Law, the quantity C, the definition of light – WITH THE UNDERSTANDING WHY, THE QUANTITY C HAS TO BE THE KINETIC ENERGY EQUIVALENT OF THE MASS ENERGY OF MATTER.

The natural laws are relative  That is, the value of one can be altered between any two reference points by altering the value or relationship of the other. We defined space as that which separates bodies of matter, so we define time as that which separates events. (If there is no discernible separation in this respect, the events are said to be simultaneous.) Examining this concept carefully, we find that time follows the same curve of natural law which is apparent in the operation of all the basic factors of nature, and again the radius of that curvature is measured by the quantity C.

Beyond A Uni-dimensional Perception of TIME

In his examination of the natural laws or facts of the Universe, man is greatly handicapped by the fact, insofar as time is concerned, he has never progressed beyond a uni-dimensional perception.

Those who are familiar with the analogies used to explain some portions of the theory of relativity, will recall that in attempting to achieve a concept of a four dimensional continuum, the reader is asked first to imagine a man who is conscious of only one dimension in space. His entire universe consists of a single line. If a dot were placed on the line in front of him, and behind, he would be completely imprisoned, since he would not be able to conceive of going over or around them. As his intelligence and consciousness developed, he would eventually become aware of a second dimension, and to imprison him then, it would be necessary to enclose him in a circle. With further development, he would become aware of a third dimension in which a sphere would be a prison, and so on.

We are now conscious of three dimensions of space, and have done considerable mathematical reasoning in regard to a fourth. Unfortunately, insofar as time is concerned, our consciousness has never progressed beyond the first dimension. We are confined to a single line in time. We have no concept of lateral motion, nor can we even turn around upon that line. We can only go forward. Many of the difficulties which we encounter in our attempt to understand the operation of the natural laws arise because of our severely restricted concept of the nature of time.

Time has often been referred to as the “fourth dimension” by those who attempt to explain our present concept of relativity. It is usually pointed out that, since all known bodies of matter in the Universe are constantly in motion with respect to each other, if we wish to describe the position of any body, it is necessary to give a point in time as well as a spatial relationship to any other body or bodies. There is, however, a more convincing method of demonstrating that time is a dimension, although we believe it would be more precise to consider it as the first dimension rather than the fourth since it is the one dimension in which all motion must take place.

We are at the present, conscious of three dimensions of space, and we know that motion can take place in any one of the three, but whichever dimension of space is involved, the motion must also take place in time. Our term for the rate of motion is the word velocity, which is defined as being the degree of change in location per unit of time. If an object has a velocity of 1000 feet per second, with respect to our point of observation, we will see that in one thousandth of a second the object will have moved one foot. In one millionth of a second it will have moved only one thousandth of a foot, and so on. We can easily see that if the time becomes zero, the motion must also become zero.

The science of photography has reached a state of development which permits us to take photographs with very short exposure times. By the stroboscopic method of photography, which has been superseded by even faster methods, we were able to take several hundred thousand consecutive pictures in one second. In these pictures even the fastest projectile seems frozen into immobility. We have taken pictures of a rifle bullet penetrating an ordinary electric light bulb, in which several complete and consecutive pictures have been made between the time the bullet first touched the bulb and the time that the first crack appeared in the glass. In these pictures, the bullet appears to be completely motionless. Of course the taking of the pictures actually did involve a very small elapse of time, and so a very small amount of motion did occur during the taking, but it again illustrates the fact that no motion which we can perceive, can take place except within that dimension of time of which we are conscious.

Having pointed out the limitations of our consciousness concerning this factor which we call time, let us now go back and examine it as best we can, with that degree of consciousness and understanding which we have. We will again attempt to choose the simplest possible definition. We defined space as that which separates bodies of matter, so we will define time as that which separates events. (If there is no discernible separation in this respect, the events are said to be simultaneous.)

 Of course we immediately hear the objection that events may be separated by space as well as by time, or that they may be separated by space without being separated by time. This statement, while usually considered to be true, yet forms a stumbling block which has precipitated many a philosopher into the quagmire of misunderstanding and paradox. The difficulty arises in our attempt to define the term simultaneous. If two events are separated by space, how shall we determine whether or not they are separated by time?

The observer cannot be present at the site of both events, and so must observe one or both of them through the separation of space, and therefore through the curvature of natural law which the separation represents. In referring to this problem in the introduction to his first book on relativity, Dr. Einstein pointed out that since our only contact with the world about us is through our senses, and since all of the knowledge which we have concerning the universe has come to us through them, if we are to formulate mathematical rules based upon our observations, we must begin with the postulate that the things which our senses tell us are true. If we should observe through a large telescope, the creation of a nova in a remote galaxy, and at the same time observe the eruption of a volcano upon our own earth, we must assume, for the purpose of our mathematics, that the two events are simultaneous.

This a postulate which is difficult to accept because the faculty which we call reason immediately interposes the objection that a separation in space involves an elapse of time between the event and our perception of it. However, Dr. Einstein points out that if we allow our reason to modify our observations, we will be evolving a concept whose value is based only upon the validity of our reason rather than upon the accuracy of our observations. We must postulate that events which are observed simultaneously, occur simultaneously insofar as that observer is concerned, and that, therefore, the simultaneity of events is a condition which depends entirely upon the position of the observer with respect to those events.

Almost any student of physics today, be he a beginner or a graduate scientist will argue that no man can ever travel from the earth to the star Alpha Centauri in a period of less than four years, because the laws of relativity state that matter can never move with a velocity greater than that of light.

This is one of the prime fallacies which has been created by misinterpretation of the mathematics. The mathematics do not say that man cannot travel between the earth and Alpha Centauri in less than four years. They say only that no observer on earth can ever see him do it. Let us see if we can create an example by which this statement may be more readily understood.

First we will assume that there is a planet in orbit about Alpha Centauri. (Because of Alpha’s proximity to its twin star Proxima Centauri, the orbit would be a rather eccentric one, but perhaps it will do as a reference point.) Next we will build a small space ship, in which we propose to pay a visit to this planet. Since a small space ship is not a very comfortable place to spend long periods of time, the idea of being confined to the craft for the four years, which relativity seems to say is the shortest possible time, is a distasteful one, so we cast about for means to shorten the journey.

If we do our engineering according to the rules which are known as classical mechanics or ordinary engineering practice, it will become apparent at once that we cannot use any source of energy which originates within the ship. These rules of mechanics tell us that, to accelerate a body of matter to a velocity of 3×10(10) centimeters per second (the velocity of light) will require energy equal to 9×10(20) ergs per gram of mass. Yet the rules of relativity (E=MC2) tell us that 9×10(20) ergs is the total energy contained in a gram of mass. This means that if we wish to accelerate the space ship to the velocity of light by energy created within the ship, we would have to convert all of the matter within the ship, including our own bodies to energy. We would then achieve the velocity of light, but we would arrive at our destination, not as matter but as electromagnetic radiation.

Since we would much prefer to arrive as matter, we must seek an accelerating force which will act from some unlimited source of energy outside the ship. It is at once apparent that a force field originating on earth would not be successful because the rate of propagation of a field is the same as that of light, and no field can accelerate us to a velocity greater than its own rate of propagation.

For the purpose of this example we will simply postulate that we have available, a supply of energy form an outside source, which we can use in any desired quantity, and which can be used to create an instantaneous velocity so high that we will reach our destination, four light years distant, in a single hour.

We will take off from a launching pad which is situated near an observatory operated by a friend of ours, who is an astronomer, and who has a telescope of unlimited power, through which he will observe our progress. Since he can only observe us through the light which we emit during the trip, we must also  cause the ship to emit a very large quantity of light.

At a prearranged instant we will takeoff and at once achieve a velocity that will take us to our destination in an hour. After fifteen minutes we will have covered one quarter of the distance, but the light which we emit at that point will require one year to return to earth, and will reach the eyes of the astronomer one year and fifteen minutes after takeoff. He will note in his logbook that we required a year and fifteen minutes to reach the quarter point. After we have traveled for thirty minutes we will have covered half the distance, but the light which we emit at that point will require two years t return to earth, and so will reach the astronomers eyes two years and thirty minutes after takeoff. After an hour has passed we will have reached our destination, but the light emitted by the craft will not reach the astronomer until four years and one hour after our departure from earth. All of the light which we emit at intermediate points will, of course, arrive at intermediate times so that the astronomer could observe our progress constantly from the instant of takeoff to the moment of our arrival upon the distant planet, four years and one hour later.

According to the primary postulate of relativity that we must accept the evidence of our senses as being valid, the astronomer must maintain that from his reference point we did not quite achieve the velocity of light.

The fact that we may have returned long before this, that we may be seated at his side, and may perhaps, be assisting him in his work, does not in any way affect the validity of his observations or the mathematics of relativity which he applies thereto. Let us remember, however, the statement that, when our mathematics are complete, then we may allow reason to deal with that which we have created. If we do this, we will not fall into the common error of confusing relativity with a concept of absolute determinism.

Let us reiterate Dr. Einstein=s preface again: AIf we allow our reason to modify our observations before our mathematics are complete, we will be evolving a concept whose value is based entirely upon the validity of our reason rather than upon the accuracy of our observations. After our mathematics are complete, then we can allow reason to deal with the formula, but until the formula is complete, we must postulate that events which are observed simultaneously occur simultaneously insofar as that observer is concerned, and that therefore the simultaneity of events is a condition which depends entirely upon the position of the observer with respect to those events.

 If we examine this concept carefully, we find that time follows the same curve of natural law which is apparent in the operation of all the basic factors of nature, and again the radius of that curvature is measured by the quantity C.

We will now create another simple analogy, in far greater detail, which may serve to make this statement more readily understood. It will put us in a unique position from which we can, from a single point in time, observe ourselves occupying three rather widely separated positions in space.

 Once again, we will start today to build a space ship. We will postulate that the ship will require one year of our time to build, and that when completed, it will be capable of infinite acceleration. We will assume that a continuous supply of energy is available from an outside source, and that the craft will continue to accelerate so long as this energy acts upon it.

During the year which we spend in building the craft, light is being reflected from us into space, so that an observer with a telescope stationed at some other point in space could follow the course of its construction. When we have completed the construction of our craft we will enter it and take off for a destination which we will assume to be a planet orbiting about Alpha or Proxima Centauri, our next nearest suns, about four light years distant. We have a telescope of unlimited power in the rear of the craft pointed toward the earth which we are leaving, and another telescope at the front, focused upon the planet which is our destination. We will set the field strength for a constant acceleration, and seat ourselves at our telescopes to observe the result.

After we have risen a few miles from the surface, we will, for the purpose of furnishing an additional reference point, eject from the craft and its field, a cannon  ball or other sphere of metal which has been specially painted so that it can readily be observed from any distance with the aid of our unlimited telescopes. Since we had not yet reached escape velocity when the ball was ejected, we will observe that it soon begins to fall back to earth.

As we continue to accelerate, we will observe that the kinetic energy differential which we are producing between ourselves and our points of observation is producing exactly the effect upon time which is predicted by our postulate of the curvature of natural law. Since the distance or degree of separation between ourselves and the earth is increasing with time, the energy differential is negative, which means that the natural laws at the observed point will displaced towards the base or zero line of the sine curve, insofar as our observations are concerned.

If we reach a velocity equal to one half that of light, and then observe a clock on earth through our telescope, we will see that in ten hours of our time, only five hours have been recorded by the earth clock. If we observe the test sphere which we ejected during our take off, (assuming that it has not yet reached the ground) we will see that it is not falling at the rate predicted by our laws of gravitation, but at a rate only half as great. We will also observe that the sphere is not accelerating at the rate predicted by our laws, nor even at half that rate. Since we ourselves are still accelerating, the observed acceleration of the sphere is diminished by a factor which is proportionate to ours.

We must remember that we can only observe events through the light which is emitted or reflected by the objects concerned with those events, and if we ourselves have a motion equal one half that velocity in the direction in which the light is moving, then a column or sequence of light impulses which were emitted from the earth during a five hour period, would require ten hours to pass our point of observation.

When the velocity of our craft reaches that of light with respect to the earth, there will be a negative energy differential, equal to the quantity C, existing between us and our point of observation. We will observe that all natural laws upon the earth have reached zero value with respect to us.

All motion and all changes have ceased.

If we observe our test sphere we will see that gravity is no longer acting upon it, since it has ceased to fall. All laws of motion are in abeyance and the factor which we call time has ceased to have any significance.

To make these observations, of course, we would require one of the new telescopes which operate on the retention of vision principle, where the last image to arrive remains upon the viewing screen until a new light image arrives to change it. When we reach the velocity C, no new light will arrive, hence the picture will not change until we change our velocity. Since we postulated at the beginning of this analogy that our craft was capable of unlimited acceleration, and since the postulated force continues to act, our velocity will continue to increase and we will have between ourselves and the earth, a rate of increase in the degree of separation which is greater than that specified by the quantity C. We can do this from our point of reference although, as will be explained later, we cannot do it from the point of view of an observer upon the earth.

When we have passed through the velocity C, a startling change occurs in our observations. We no longer observe the earth from the telescope at the rear of the craft. The earth now appears in the telescope at the front, and we are no longer leaving the earth, we are now approaching it. We will see a craft which is identical to ours, and which is indeed our own craft, detach itself from us and move back toward the earth ahead of us at a rate which is proportionate to our excess over the velocity C.

If we observe the earth, we discover that all natural laws are operating in reverse.

If we observe the test sphere we will see that it is now falling away from the earth rather than towards it. Gravity between the earth and the sphere has become negative with respect to our point of reference as have all the natural laws. We observe this through the forward telescope rather than that at the rear, because we are now overtaking the light which had passed us before we had reached the velocity C, and since we are now overtaking it, we encounter first the light which had passed us last.

All events occur in reverse, just as would the scenes in a motion picture film which is being run backwards.

If we complete our journey to the planet which is our destination, at an average velocity equal to 4 times C, we will arrive with an elapsed time of one year as measured by the clocks on our own craft. During the journey, however, we will observe the elapse of five years of time upon the planet which we are approaching, and the elapse of three years of negative time upon the earth which we are leaving.

In other words we will arrive at our destination three years before we left the earth.

If immediately upon our arrival we seat ourselves at a telescope of sufficient power to observe the earth at close range, we will see ourselves going about the daily tasks which we performed two years before we began to build the space craft in which we made the journey. If we then focus the telescope upon the proper point in space we will see ourselves in our space craft, flying backwards toward the earth.

We are now in a position from which we can observe the sine curve nature of all natural law, and to measure precisely the radius of the curvature. If we observe the earth, we see that time there is positive. That is: it is moving in the direction which we consider normal. Since there is no significant energy differential, the time rate is essentially the same, but because of the degree of spatial separation there will be a displacement along the time curve, between the observer and the point which he is observing.

According to our theory of the curvature of natural law, this displacement should be equal to D divided by C, where D is the distance and C is our basic factor. In the case of our present observation the distance is equal to 4.C.years, which if divided by C will equal 4 years, which is precisely the degree of displacement which we observe.

If we now turn our attention to the space craft, we find that we are observing it through an energy differential which exceeds the quantity C and therefore the craft is within the negative portion of the curve, and all natural laws will be operating in reverse at that point. We are now in a unique position, in that we now can, from a single point in time or at least from a single point in the only dimension of time of which we are conscious, observe ourselves occupying three rather widely separated positions in space.

First: our position at the telescope as the observer. At this point time is positive.

Second: our position on the surface of the earth. Here time is also positive but has a negative displacement upon the time curve which is equal to four years.

Third: our position in the space craft: here time is negative, as demonstrated by the fact that we observe it flying backwards toward the earth, and all actions taking place within it occur in reverse order. This is, of course, due to the fact that the craft had a velocity greater then that of C and so was constantly leaving behind the light which was emitted or reflected from it. As we observe the craft from our new reference point, the last light which it emitted arrives first.

If we continue to observe for several years, we will eventually see ourselves build the craft and take off into space. At the same time we can see ourselves in the same craft hurtling backward through space toward the inevitable meeting point where the past and the future join to become the present.

Since we are observing ourselves simultaneously occupying three different positions in space, we can readily see that we are forced to a concept of time which includes more than one dimension. If we continue to observe the two craft, we will see that the one which is moving away from us is constantly slowing down, while the one coming toward us from the earth is accelerating. At the instant in which the velocity of the receding craft reaches zero, the approaching craft will reach it, coincide with it, and both craft will disappear completely from view. Our lateral excursion into time has completed its curve and we have returned to the starting point of our unidimensional concept.

There is only one thing left to do. We immediately leap into our space craft and begin our return journey to earth. As before, we achieve an average or mean velocity equal to 4 C. We land our craft near the observatory of an astronomer who is a friend of ours, and rush in to tell him of our return. We find him seated at his telescope observing our landing upon the planet which we had set out to visit. When we inform him that we achieved an average velocity of 4 C, his reply is that this is impossible since the laws of relativity clearly state that no object can achieve a velocity in excess of C (with respect to a given reference point.).

He will also point out that he has been observing us constantly since our take off from the earth and that only now, today, five years later, were we observed to have reached our destination. Since the journey required five years of earth time, our average velocity was only four fifths that of light.

Again, we must restate with emphasis: according to the primary postulate of relativity, that for mathematical purposes we must accept the results of our observations as valid, the astronomer is perfectly correct in his statement that we did not, and could not have exceeded the velocity C. The mere fact that we have returned, be seated at his side, and may perhaps be assisting him in his work, does not in any way affect the validity of his observations nor the mathematics of relativity which he applies thereto. He can only state that our arrival upon the distant planet, and the moment of our return to earth were in fact simultaneous.

 We can see that, even if our energy level had been so close to infinite that the outward trip had required only one second, if during the one second trip we had emitted enough light to make observation possible, the astronomer upon the earth would note that the trip required four years and one second, and so would have undeniable proof of the mathematics which postulate that only with infinite energy may the velocity C be achieved.

While the astronomer’s statement is perfectly correct with respect to his reference point upon the earth, if we leave the surface of the earth, our reference point will go along with us, and the limitations of relativity will always precede us at a distance equal to the quantity C. We need not fear that we will ever overtake or be hampered in any way by those limitations. We can now clearly see a number of those aspects of the principles of relativity which have created what we have described as thought blocks in the minds of many students, scientists and engineers. We have shown that these thought blocks are not actually inherent in the mathematics of relativity, but are obstacles created by the arbitrary interpretations which we have placed upon those mathematics. The obstacles are illusionary only. We must realize that the rules of limitation found in our mathematical approach to nature, are limitations only of our own perception and consciousness; and have no absolute significance insofar as nature itself is concerned.

For those that wish to read ahead:

1.      General Definitions – critical

2.      The Nonlinearity of Physical Law

3.      Gravity

4.      Matter and Mass

5.      Space

6.      The Quantity C

7.      Time

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The Nonlinearity of Physical Law

Frequency vibration

The Nonlinearity of Physical Law

 Investigating the “Why” for the Big Screw Up in the Standard Model of Physics

“physicists have two ways of describing reality, quantum mechanics for the small world of particles and general relativity for the larger world of planets and black holes. But the two theories do not get along: attempts to combine their equations into a unified theory produce seemingly nonsensical answers” “…..Cats are both dead and alive, an infinitude of simultaneous existing universes, reality depends on what’s measured, or who’s observing, particles that signal each other across vast distances at speeds exceeding light”

Historically, as our boundaries expanded, the flat world was seen to be round.

What is not being “seen” and recognized, as Physics’ boundaries expanded – when size, mass, distance begin approaching the micro and macro domains where the CURVATURE, with the constant C radius, HAS TO BE ACCOUNTED FOR?

The natural laws are relative?  That is, the value of one can be altered between any two reference points by altering the value or relationship of the other. We defined space as that which separates bodies of matter, so we define time as that which separates events. (If there is no discernible separation in this respect, the events are said to be simultaneous.) Examining this concept carefully, we find that time follows the same curve of natural law which is apparent in the operation of all the basic factors of nature, and again the radius of that curvature is measured by the quantity C.

Mathematical/timing/observational error, or eyesight limitation? (The theory of relativity does not say that man cannot travel faster than the speed of light, it merely says that no one on earth will be able to ‘see’ him do it.)

The Simultaneous Issue? In referring to the problem of simultaneity in the introduction to his first book on relativity, Dr. Einstein pointed out that since our only contact with the world about us is through our senses, and since all of the knowledge which we have concerning the universe has come to us through them, if we are to formulate mathematical rules based upon our observations, we must begin with the postulate that the things which our senses tell us are true. If we should observe through a large telescope, the creation of a nova in a remote galaxy, and at the same time observe the eruption of a volcano upon our own earth, we must assume, for the purpose of our mathematics, that the two events are simultaneous (see detailed explanation on Time – StarSteps3)

A review of the definitions, for the purpose of measurement, will assist in defining Common Denominators in the major factors of Nature – space, time, mass, matter, energy, gravity (and fields in general) as represented by frequency.  (see Definitions)

curvedlaw d4a55-yen4tcmove

Moving away from a straight line to infinity, super-imposed space time coordinate systems, and a CURVED space, we will look at the nonlinearity of physical law itself.

 The Nonlinearity of Physical Law

The series of mathematical formula which Albert Einstein gave to the world in 1905, he called “A Theory of Special Relativity”. Einstein brought to our attention that the factors of Gravity, Space, Time and Energy were not absolute and independent entities, but that they were variable factors, each having a value which depended upon the value of others. Thus the first faint light of understanding began to filter through the dense screen of absolute determinism which had been erected about the physical science.

Unfortunately, science, instead of pursuing this bright gleam of truth, attempted, from force of habit, to mold it into the common pattern of knowledge, by reducing it to a mathematical formula, which could be used without the necessity of understanding it. Special Relativity was made into a “universal law of absolutes”.

We have ignored the forward with which Einstein prefaced the mathematics, and so have created the very thought blocks which he hoped to prevent. We will refer to this problem later on, but it might be wise first, to devote a little time to the consideration of what we will call “the non linearity of physical law”.

A few decades ago, our physical laws were considered to be linear. That is: we had, by trial and error, by observation and test, developed a set of laws which apparently held true for all of the small segment of nature, which we were able to observe at the time. We assumed, therefore, that these laws would hold true in any segment of nature, no matter how far removed from our point of observation.

When, however, the study of physics moved into the microcosm, that is, when we began to examine the interior of the atom, we found there a set of laws which did not agree with those to which we had been accustomed. They too appeared to be linear, but operated at an angle to our established laws. The same disturbing situation was discovered in the macrocosm. When our astronomers developed the giant telescope capable of peering many millions of light years into space, they found there, still another set of laws operating apparently at an angle to both of the others.

For a time, we attempted to accustom ourselves to the existence of three sets of physical laws, each

set linear within its own range of observation, but each set operating angularly with respect to the others. Then, with the development of the principles of relativity, we began to realize, or at least we should have realized, that these different sets of linear laws were not actually linear, nor were they different sets of laws. They were simply three widely separated segments of the one great curve of natural law.

As long as we were dealing with quantities which could be observed with the unaided eye or with simple instruments, we were unable to detect the curvature, because the segment we were observing constituted such a tiny portion of the curve that its deviation from linearity was too slight to be detected.

For most practical purposes connected with the ordinary mechanics of our daily lives, these laws are still considered to be linear. Calculations are simpler when they are so considered, and the resulting  error is negligible. For the same reason, a surveyor who is surveying a small residence lot does not find it necessary to take into consideration the curvature of the earth, because the error resulting from this neglect is not detectable even by the most sensitive of his instruments. If, however, the surveyor is to make accurate measurements of large areas such as a State or a Continent, it does become imperative to consider the curvature of the earth’s surface, and to do this, of course, it is necessary to have a reasonably accurate knowledge of the radius of that curvature.

The necessity of an accurate determination of the radius of curvature of the natural laws was first realized perhaps by the late Dr. Einstein, who devoted a large part of his life’s work to this problem. The results which he obtained have filled a number of text books, and have been of inestimable value in the progress of the physical science. They proved to be the key which opened the door to the utilization of nuclear energy, and have many other implications which are sensed but not yet completely understood.

As soon as a successful effort is made to reduce these mathematical formulae to simple concepts easily grasped by the mind, these concepts, together with the additional truths which will then  become self evident, will open the door to space travel with a surety and ease which we would now find hardly possible even to imagine.

The difficulty with our present mathematical approach to the problem of relativity lies not in any error of the mathematics themselves, but in the fact that the methods and terms used in the attempt to explain them, often lead to incorrect thinking and assumptions.

For example: the best known formula perhaps, which has emerged from the study of relativity, is the expression E =MC2, which simply states that the quantity of energy (in ergs) which is inherent in any mass, is equal to the number of grams of that mass, multiplied by the square of the quantity C. The quantity C is considered to be a constant, in fact the only constant which has survived in a relativistic world.

In almost every text book on physics in the world today the statement is made that the quantity C represents the velocity of light (in centimeters per second), yet every student in the world who has studied the subject, knows that the velocity of light is not a constant. That its velocity, in fact, varies slightly with each different medium through which it is propagated. Any student who has ever passed a beam of sunlight through a prism to produce a spectrum of color, has demonstrated that not only does the velocity of light vary in different media, but that the change in velocity varies somewhat with the frequency of the light when propagated in material media. This of course is the principal upon which all of our spectroscopes are designed, although most textbooks state merely that the light is refracted or `bent’ in passing from one medium to another. There are many who will dispute the statement that the change in velocity varies with the frequency, but when sufficiently precise tests are made entirely within a single medium, the results indicate convincingly that this is true. At this point most students will remark that the quantity C refers to the velocity of light in a perfect vacuum, but where in the universe can we find a perfect vacuum in which to test this assertion?

Astronomers and physicists have estimated that even in the remotest depths of intergalactic space there will probably be found, from three to seven nuclear or atomic particles per cubic centimeter. A  beam of light traveling at approximately 3×10(10) centimeters per second would still encounter a rather large number of such particles during each second of its journey. While it is true that the proportionate decrease in velocity which would be produced by this minute concentration of matter is so small that it might be negligible for all practical purposes of measurement, nevertheless it demonstrates the fact that we have chosen as our sole remaining constant, a quantity which actually can never be a perfect constant anywhere in the know universe.

Fortunately there is a value to which the quantity C can be assigned which is a constant. Moreover the assignment of the quantity C to this factor makes possible a much better understanding of the natural laws involved in the propagation of energy.

The quantity C is actually the kinetic energy equivalent of the mass energy of matter. In other words, if we take a gram (or any other quantity of matter: Newtonian mass) and convert that matter gradually into energy according to the formula E = MC2, and the resultant energy, as it appeared, were constantly applied to the remaining matter in such a way as to accelerate it uniformly in a given direction, when all the matter had been so converted we would find that we had zero Newtonian mass, infinite inertial mass and a resultant velocity equal to the quantity C, or approximately 3×10(10) centimeters per second (with respect to the given reference or starting point). The maximum velocity attained would always be the same regardless of the quantity of matter with which we started. This is a fact which can easily be verified by anyone who is mathematically inclined, and who is familiar with the laws of acceleration. The energy required to accelerate each gram of mass to the velocity C through energy conversion is exactly equal to total energy inherent in any matter having that mass.

This fact forms the true basis of the statement in our present day physics that the velocity C is a maximum or limiting velocity, since it represents the greatest kinetic energy differential which can exist between two given reference points. Since a good understanding of this concept is of great importance, it will be referred to again, and discussed more fully in the chapters on energy and matter.

Another assumption in the theories of relativity given to the world by Dr. Einstein, the natural laws, in general, are assumed to be linear, but the space in which they operate is considered to be “curved”. This concept offers the simplest mathematical presentation, since all of the deviations from linearity can thus be explained by a single postulate. Unfortunately, like most of our mathematical  presentations, the concept offers but little for the mind to grasp. A curved space cannot be pictured mentally, nor can it be drawn upon paper. The question always arises, if space is inside the curve, what is outside?

We have discovered that the linear mathematics which we commonly apply to the ‘laws’ or rules of nature, do not hold true when carried to an extent which permits the error to be measured, because they do not follow a straight line reaching to infinity, but a curve of finite radii. In a timeless universe, this curve, in any given plane, would be represented by a circle, but since the laws operate through time as well as space, the curve may be more readily understood if depicted as a “sine curve” or “wave”. The “base” line of the wave (which is the center line of the curve) represents zero, and the portions above and below the line represent the positive and negative aspects of the law.

Thus we see that there are points and conditions in which the natural laws reach zero value with respect to a given reference point, and that beyond these points the laws become negative, reversing their effect with respect to the observer.

The constant repetition of the term “reference point” or “observer” is necessary to emphasize the frequently unrecognized fact that none of the basic factors of nature have any reality or significance except when considered from a specified position or condition.

If, therefore, we exchange the existing mathematical postulate of linear laws operating in a curved space, for a concept based upon the curvature of natural law, we will find that we have not  invalidated or changed any of the presently accepted mathematics which we apply to these concepts. They can still be applied in the same way, and will give the same results.

By the exchange, however, we will have achieved a position from which the operation of the natural laws can be pictured by the mind, and can be charted upon paper. Our new perspective will allow us to take the mathematics past the velocity of light and infinite mass limits, past the disabled negative leg of gravity, and past the inappropriate explanations of our positive and negative mathematical frames of reference. It will take us past our limits and permit widespread application. And there is no more beautiful experience than when the world expands beyond its accustomed limits. Those are moments when reality takes on splendor.

For those that wish to read ahead:

1.      General Definitions – critical

2.      The Nonlinearity of Physical Law

3.      Gravity

4.      Matter and Mass

5.      Space

6.      The Quantity C

7.      Time

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